Chanakya (c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor. He is traditionally identified as Kauṭilya or Vishnugupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise, the Arthashastra. As such, he is considered the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in India, and his work is thought of as an important precursor to classical economics.

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Give up a member to save a family, a family to save a village, a village to save a country, and the country to save yourself.

It is better to die than to preserve this life by incurring disgrace. The loss of life causes but a moment's grief, but disgrace brings grief every day of one's life.

A good wife is one who serves her husband in the morning like a mother does, loves him in the day like a sister does, and pleases him like a prostitute in the night.

Do not inhabit a country where you are not respected, cannot earn your livelihood, have no friends or cannot acquire knowledge.

Education is the best friend. An educated person is respected everywhere. Education beats the beauty and the youth.

As long as your body is healthy and under control, and death is distant, try to save your soul, when death is immanent what can you do?

Books are as useful to a stupid person as a mirror is useful to a blind person.

For the moon, though one, dispels the darkness, which the stars, though numerous, can not.

As the man who digs obtains underground water by use of a shovel, so the student attains the knowledge possessed by his preceptor through his service.

The life of an uneducated man is as useless as the tail of a dog, which neither covers its rear end, nor protects it from the bites of insects.

He who desires sense gratification must give up all thoughts of acquiring knowledge, and he who seeks knowledge must not hope for sense gratification.

The serpent, the king, the tiger, the stinging wasp, the small child, the dog owned by other people, and the fool: these seven ought not to be awakened from sleep.

A wise man should not reveal his loss of wealth, the vexation of his mind, the misconduct of his own wife, base words spoken by others, and disgrace that has befallen him.

Learn one thing from a lion, one from a crane, four a cock, five from a crow, six from a dog, and three from an ass.

We should not fret for what is past nor should we be anxious about the future, men of discernment deal only with the present moment.

O wise man! Give your wealth only to the worthy and never to others. The water of the sea received by the clouds is always sweet.

Religion is preserved by wealth, knowledge by diligent practice, a king by conciliatory words, and a home by a dutiful housewife.

O see what a wonder it is! The doings of the great are strange: they treat wealth as light as a straw yet when they obtain it they bend under its weight.

Poverty disease sorrow imprisonment and other evils are the fruits borne by the tree of one's own sins.

(Through the night) a great many kinds of birds perch on a tree, but in the morning they fly in all the ten directions. Why should we lament for that?

Our bodies are perishable wealth is not at all permanent and death is always nearby. Therefore we must immediately engage in acts of merit.

Conciliate a strong man by submission a wicked man by opposition and the one whose power is equal to yours by politeness or force.

Learning is like a cow of desire. It like her yields in all seasons. Like a mother it feeds you on your journey. Therefore learning is a hidden treasure.

Do not say ""What what fear has a rich man of calamity?"" When riches begin to forsake one even the accumulated stock dwindles away.

He who befriends a man whose conduct is vicious whose vision impure and who is notoriously crooked is rapidly ruined.

Water is the medicine for indigestion, it is invigorating when the food that is eaten is well digested, it is like nectar when drunk in the middle of a dinner, and it is like poison when taken at the end of a meal.

For one whose heart melts with compassion for all creatures, what is the necessity of knowledge, liberation matted hair on the head and smearing the body with ashes.

Wise men should never go into a country where there are no means of earning one's livelihood where the people have no dread of anybody have no sense of shame no intelligence or a charitable disposition.

A woman does not become holy by offering by charity by observing hundreds of fasts or by sipping sacred water as by sipping the water used to wash her husbands feet.

Men reap the fruits of their deeds and intellects bear the mark of deeds performed in previous lives, even so the wise act after due circumspection.

Do not put your trust in a bad companion nor even trust an ordinary friend, for if he should get angry with you he may bring all your secrets to light.

He who regards another's wife as his mother, the wealth that does not belong to him as a lump of mud, and the pleasure and pain of all other living beings as his own - truly sees things in the right perspective and he is a true pandit.

It is better to be without a kingdom than to rule over a petty one, better to be without a friend than to befriend a rascal, better to be without a disciple than to have a stupid one, and better to be without a wife than to have a bad one.

Perfection can be achieved only through devotion (to the Supreme Lord) for devotion is the basis of all success.

He who possesses intelligence is strong, how can the man that is unintelligent be powerful? The elephant of the forest, having lost his senses by intoxication, was tricked into a lake by a small rabbit.

Before you start some work always ask yourself three questions - Why am I doing it What the results might be and Will I be successful. Only when you think deeply and find satisfactory answers to these questions go ahead.

Even one who by his qualities appears to be all knowing suffers without patronage, the gem though precious requires a gold setting.

He who is overly attached to his family members experiences fear and sorrow for the root of all grief is attachment. Thus one should discard attachment to be happy.

It is better to live under a tree in a jungle inhabited by tigers and elephants to maintain oneself in such a place with ripe fruits and spring water to lie down on grass and to wear the ragged barks of trees than to live amongst one's relations when reduced to poverty.

Treat your kid like a darling for the first five years. For the next five years scold them. By the time they turn sixteen treat them like a friend. Your grown up children are your best friends.

The happiness and peace attained by those satisfied by the nectar of spiritual tranquillity is not attained by greedy persons restlessly moving here and there.

He who loses his money is forsaken by his friends his wife his servants and his relations, yet when he regains his riches those who have forsaken him come back to him. Hence wealth is certainly the best of relations.

O lady why are you gazing downward? Has something of yours fallen on the ground? (She replies) O fool can you not understand the pearl of my youth has slipped away?

Charity puts and end to poverty, righteous conduct to misery, discretion to ignorance, and scrutiny to fear.

Once you start a working on something don't be afraid of failure and don't abandon it. People who work sincerely are the happiest.

As a whole forest becomes fragrant by the existence of a single tree with sweet-smelling blossoms in it, so a family becomes famous by the birth of a virtuous son.

As a single withered tree if set aflame causes a whole forest to burn so does a rascal son destroy a whole family.

He who forsakes his own community and joins another perishes as the king who embraces an unrighteous path.

The house of a childless person is a void all directions are void to one who has no relatives the heart of a fool is also void but to a poverty stricken man all is void.

Those parents who do not educate their sons are their enemies, for as is a crane among swans so are ignorant so are ignorant sons in a public assembly.

He who runs away from a fearful calamity a foreign invasion a terrible famine and the companionship of wicked men is safe.

If one has a good disposition what other virtue is needed? If a man has fame what is the value of other ornamentation?

A man's descent may be discerned by his conduct, his country by his pronunciation of language, his friendship by his warmth and glow, and his capacity to eat by his body.

Those who are destitute of learning penance knowledge good disposition virtue and benevolence are brutes wandering the earth in the form of men. They are burdensome to the earth.

Rain which falls upon the sea is useless, so is food for one who is satiated, in vain is a gift for one who is wealthy, and a burning lamp during the daytime is useless.

By preparing a garland for a Deity with one's own hand, by grinding sandal paste for the Lord with one's own hand, and by writing sacred texts with one's own hand - one becomes blessed with opulence equal to that of Indra.

If a man should feel before as he feels after repentance -- then who would not attain perfection?

Brass is polished by ashes, copper is cleaned by tamarind, a woman by her menses, and a river by its flow.

A man is born alone and dies alone, and he experiences the good and bad consequences of his karma alone, and he goes alone to hell or the Supreme abode.

Offspring friends and relatives flee from a devotee of the Lord: yet those who follow him bring merit to their families through their devotion.

Contentment with little or nothing to eat although one may have a great appetite, to awaken instantly although one may be in a deep slumber, unflinching devotion to the master, and bravery, these six qualities should be learned from the dog.

He is a pandit (man of knowledge) who speaks what is suitable to the occasion who renders loving service according to his ability and who knows the limits of his anger.

Avoid him who talks sweetly before you but tries to ruin you behind your back for he is like a pitcher of poison with milk on top.

Knowledge is lost without putting it into practice, a man is lost due to ignorance, an army is lost without a commander, and a woman is lost without a husband.

A mountain is broken even by a thunderbolt: is the thunderbolt therefore as big as the mountain? No he whose power prevails is really mighty, what is there in bulk?

Fondle a son until he is five years of age and use the stick for another ten years but when he has attained his sixteenth year treat him as a friend.

He who is engrossed in family life will never acquire knowledge, there can be no mercy in the eater of flesh, the greedy man will not be truthful, and purity will not be found in a woman a hunter.

The hearts of base men burn before the fire of other's fame and they slander them being themselves unable to rise to such a high position.

He who nurtures benevolence for all creatures within his heart overcomes all difficulties and will be the recipient of all types of riches at every step.

He whose son is obedient to him whose wife's conduct is in accordance with his wishes and who is content with his riches has his heaven here on earth.

It is better to have only one son from whom the whole family can derive support and peacefulness.

The world's biggest power is the youth and beauty of a woman.

Union in privacy (with one's wife), boldness, storing away useful items, watchfulness, and not easily trusting others, these five things are to be learned from a crow.

A wise man should marry a virgin of a respectable family even if she is deformed. He should not marry one of a low-class family through beauty. Marriage in a family of equal status is preferable.

One should save his money against hard times save his wife at the sacrifice of his riches but invariably one should save his soul even at the sacrifice of his wife and riches.

I consider him who does not act religiously as dead though living but he who dies acting religiously unquestionably lives long though he is dead.

What good is a cow that neither gives milk nor conceives? Similarly what is the value of the birth of a son if he becomes neither learned nor a pure devotee of the Lord?

He who is prepared for the future and he who deals cleverly with any situation that may arise are both happy, but the fatalistic man who wholly depends on luck is ruined.

How can he who seeks sense gratification acquire knowledge and he who possesses knowledge enjoy mundane sense pleasure?

Separation from the wife disgrace from one's own people an enemy saved in battle service to a wicked king poverty and a mismanaged assembly: these six kinds of evils if afflicting a person burn him even without fire.

A still-born son os superior to a foolish son endowed with a long life. The first causes grief for but a moment while the latter like a blazing fire consumes his parents in grief for life.

The cuckoos remain silent for a long time (for several seasons) until they are able to sing sweetly (in the Spring ) so as to give joy to all.

What is there to be enjoyed in the world of Lord Indra for one whose wife is loving and virtuous who possesses wealth who has a well-behaved son endowed with good qualities and who has a grandchildren born of his children?

The hand is not so well adorned by ornaments as by charitable offerings, one does not become clean by smearing sandalwood paste upon the body as by taking a bath, one does not become so much satisfied by dinner as by having respect shown to him, and salvation is not attained by self-adornment as by cultivation of spiritual knowledge.

Eschew wicked company and associate with saintly persons. Acquire virtue day and night and always meditate on that which is eternal forgetting that which is temporary.

Accumulated wealth is saved by spending, just as incoming fresh water is saved by letting out stagnant water.

Kings speak for once men of learning once and the daughter is given in marriage once. All these things happen once and only once.

I do not deserve that wealth which is to be attained by enduring much suffering or by transgressing the rules of virtue or by flattering an enemy.

Oil on water a secret communicated to a base man a gift given to a worthy receiver and scriptural instruction given to an intelligent man spread out by virtue of their nature.

Moral excellence is an ornament for personal beauty, righteous conduct for high birth, success for learning, and proper spending for wealth.

Religious austerities should be practiced alone study by two and singing by three. A journey should be undertaken by four agriculture by five and war by many together.

We should always deal cautiously with fire water women foolish people serpents and members of a royal family, for they may when the occasion presents itself at once bring about our death.

The woman who fasts and observes religious vows without the permission of her husband shortens his life and goes to hell.

Those born blind cannot see, similarly blind are those in the grip of lust. Proud men have no perception of evil, and those bent on acquiring riches see no sin in their actions.

Purity of speech of the mind of the senses and the of a compassionate heart are needed by one who desires to rise to the divine platform.

All the creatures are pleased by loving words, and therefore we should address words that are pleasing to all for there is no lack of sweet words.

What is the use of having many sons if they cause grief and vexation?

He who is not shy in the acquisition of wealth grain and knowledge and in taking his meals will be happy

He who lives in our mind is near though he may actually be far away, but he who is not in our heart is far though he may really be nearby.

As gold is tested in four ways by rubbing cutting heating and beating -- so a man should be tested by these four things: his renunciation his conduct his qualities and his actions.

Do not put your trust in rivers, men who carry weapons, beasts with claws or horns, women and members of a royal family.

The biggest guru-mantra is: Never share your secrets with anybody. It will destroy you.

Who is there who having become rich has not become proud? What licentious man has put an end to his calamities? What man in this world has not been overcome by a woman? Who is always loved by the king?

There are many ways of binding by which one can be dominated and controlled in this world but the bond of affection is the strongest. For example take the case of the humble bee which although expert at piercing hardened wood becomes caught in the embrace of its beloved flowers (as the petals close at dusk).

For want of discernment the most precious jewels lie in the dust at the feet of men while bits of glass are worn on their heads. But we should not imagine that the gems have sunk in value and the bits of glass have risen in importance. When a person of critical judgement shall appear each will be given its right position.

Learning is a friend on the journey, a wife in the house, medicine in sickness, and religious merit is the only friend after death.

Foolishness is indeed painful and verily so is youth but more painful by far than either is being obliged in another person's house.

Do not be very upright in your dealings for you would see by going to the forest that straight trees are cut down while crooked ones are left standing.

A man is great by deeds not by birth.

What good can the scriptures do to a man who has no sense of his own? Of what use is as mirror to a blind man?

What is too heavy for the strong and what place is too distant for those who put forth effort?

In this world whose family is there without blemish? Who is free from sickness and grief? Who is forever happy?

He who has wealth has friends and relations, he alone survives and is respected as a man.

Lakshmi the Goddess of wealth comes of Her own accord where fools are not respected grain is well stored up and the husband and wife do not quarrel.

What is it that escapes the observation of poets? What is that act women are incapable of doing? What will drunken people not prate? What will not a crow eat?

A man who encounters the following three is unfortunate, the death of his wife in his old age the entrusting of money into the hands of relatives and depending upon others for food.

Whores don't live in company of poor men citizens never support a weak company and birds don't build nests on a tree that doesn't bear fruits.

A single son endowed with good qualities is far better than a hundred devoid of them.

A person should not be too honest. Straight trees are cut first and honest people are screwed first.

To have ability for eating when dishes are ready at hand to be robust and virile in the company of one's religiously wedded wife and to have a mind for making charity when one is prosperous are the fruits of no ordinary austerities.

There is some self-interest behind every friendship. There is no friendship without self-interests. This is a bitter truth.

Generosity pleasing address courage and propriety of conduct are not acquired but are inbred qualities.

A father who is a chronic debtor, an adulterous mothe,r a beautiful wife, and an unlearned son are enemies (in one's own home).

The beauty of a cuckoo is in its notes that of a woman in her unalloyed devotion to her husband that of an ugly person in his scholarship and that of an ascetic in his forgiveness.

One single object (a woman) appears in three different ways: to the man who practices austerity it appears as a corpse to the sensual it appears as a woman and to the dogs as a lump of flesh.

The one excellent thing that can be learned from a lion is that whatever a man intends doing should be done by him with a whole-hearted and strenuous effort.

There are two ways to get rid of thorns and wicked persons, using footwear in the first case and in the second shaming them so that they cannot raise their faces again thus keeping them at a distance.

Even a pandit comes to grief by giving instruction to a foolish disciple by maintaining a wicked wife and by excessive familiarity with the miserable.

When one is consumed by the sorrows of life three things give him relief: offspring a wife and the company of the Lord's devotees.

Do not reveal what you have thought upon doing but by wise council keep it secret being determined to carry it into execution.

The learned are envied by the foolish, rich men by the poor, chaste women by adulteresses, and beautiful ladies by ugly ones.

They alone are sons who are devoted to their father. He is a father who supports his sons. He is a friend in whom we can confide and she only is a wife in whose company the husband feels contented and peaceful.

A blade of grass is light cotton, is lighter the beggar, is infinitely lighter still. Why then does not the wind carry him away? Because it fears that he may ask alms of him.

There is no austerity equal to a balanced mind and there is no happiness equal to contentment, there is no disease like covetousness and no virtue like mercy.

Excessive attachment to sense pleasures leads to bondage and detachment from sense pleasures leads to liberation, therefore it is the mind alone that is responsible for bondage or liberation.

Scriptural lessons not put into practice are poison, a meal is poison to him who suffers from indigestion, a social gathering is poison to a poverty stricken person, and a young wife is poison to an aged man.

One destitute of wealth is not destitute he is indeed rich (if he is learned), but the man devoid of learning is destitute in every way.

Time perfects all living beings as well as kills them, it alone is awake when all others are asleep. Time is insurmountable.

Even if a snake is not poisonous it should pretend to be venomous.

The earth is supported by the power of truth, it is the power of truth that makes the sun shine and the winds blow, indeed all things rest upon truth.

Consider again and again the following: the right time the right friends the right place the right means of income the right ways of spending and from whom you derive your power.

The rain water enlivens all living beings of the earth both movable (insects animals humans etc.) and immovable (plants trees etc.) and then returns to the ocean it value multiplied a million fold.

Let not a single day pass without your learning a verse half a verse or a fourth of it or even one letter of it, nor without attending to charity study and other pious activity.

There is poison in the fang of the serpent in the mouth of the fly and in the sting of a scorpion, but the wicked man is saturated with it.

God is not present in idols. Your feelings are your god. The soul is your temple.

Of a rascal and a serpent the serpent is the better of the two for he strikes only at the time he is destined to kill while the former at every step.

A thing may be dreaded as long as it has not overtaken you but once it has come upon you try to get rid of it without hesitation.

Even as the unborn babe is in the womb of his mother, these five are fixed as his life destiny: his life span, his activities, his acquisition of wealth and knowledge, and his time of death.

The duration of life is uncertain and the place of habitation is uncertain, but in all this inconsistent world religious merit alone is immovable.

We should not grieve when we must inevitably part company from our dear ones.

The fragrance of flowers spreads only in the direction of the wind. But the goodness of a person spreads in all direction.

Fate makes a beggar a king and a king a beggar. He makes a rich man poor and a poor man rich.

My dear child if you desire to be free from the cycle of birth and death then abandon the objects of sense gratification as poison. Drink instead the nectar of forbearance upright conduct mercy cleanliness and truth.

The wise man should restrain his senses like the crane and accomplish his purpose with due knowledge of his place time and ability.

There is no water like rainwater, no strength like one's own, no light like that of the eyes, and no wealth more dear than food grain.

He who shall practice these twenty virtues shall become invincible in all his undertakings.

Test a servant while in the discharge of his duty a relative in difficulty a friend in adversity and a wife in misfortune.

Constant travel brings old age upon a man, a horse becomes old by being constantly tied up, lack of sexual contact with her husband brings old age upon a woman, and garments become old through being left in the sun.

The serpent may without being poisonous raise high its hood but the show of terror is enough to frighten people -- whether he be venomous or not.

If the bees which seek the liquid oozing from the head of a lust-intoxicated elephant are driven away by the flapping of his ears then the elephant has lost only the ornament of his head. The bees are quite happy in the lotus filled lake.

Never make friends with people who are above or below you in status. Such friendships will never give you any happiness.

As a calf follows its mother among a thousand cows so the (good or bad) deeds of a man follow him.

What vice could be worse than covetousness? What is more sinful than slander? For one who is truthful what need is there for austerity? For one who has a clean heart what is the need for pilgrimage?

A wicked wife a false friend a saucy servant and living in a house with a serpent in it are nothing but death.

He who gives up shyness in monetary dealings in acquiring knowledge in eating and in business becomes happy.

As is the desire of Providence so functions one's intellect, one's activities are also controlled by Providence, and by the will of Providence one is surrounded by helpers.

Friendship between equals flourishes service under a king is respectable it is good to be business-minded in public dealings and a handsome lady is safe in her own home.

Therefore with an eye to the public good I shall speak that which when understood will lead to an understanding of things in their proper perspective.

Women have hunger two-fold shyness four-fold daring six-fold and lust eight-fold as compared to men.

The prostitute has to forsake a man who has no money the subject a king that cannot defend him the birds a tree that bears no fruit and the guests a house after they have finished their meals.

O jackal leave aside the body of that man at once whose hands have never given in charity whose ears have not heard the voice of learning whose eyes have not beheld a pure devotee of the Lord whose feet have never traversed to holy places whose belly is filled with things obtained by crooked practices and whose head is held high in vanity. Do not eat it O jackal otherwise you will become polluted.

He whose hands are clean does not like to hold an office, he who desires nothing cares not for bodily decorations, he who is only partially educated cannot speak agreeably, and he who speaks out plainly cannot be a deceiver.

A wise man should not divulge the formula of a medicine which he has well prepared, an act of charity which he has performed, domestic conflicts, private affairs with his wife, poorly prepared food he may have been offered, or slang he may have heard.

Many a bad habit is developed through overindulgence and many a good one by chastisement therefore beat your son as well as your pupil, never indulge them. (""Spare the rod and spoil the child."")

We should secure and keep the following: the blessings of meritorious deeds wealth grain the words of the spiritual master and rare medicines. Otherwise life becomes impossible.

If the king is virtuous then the subjects are also virtuous. If the king is sinful then the subjects also become sinful. If he is mediocre then the subjects are mediocre. The subjects follow the example of the king. In short as is the king so are the subjects.

Do not keep company with a fool for as we can see he is a two-legged beast. Like an unseen thorn he pierces the heart with his sharp words.

Fish tortoises and birds bring up their young by means of sight attention and touch, so do saintly men afford protection to their associates by the same means.

To wake at the proper time, to take a bold stand and fight, to make a fair division (of property) among relations, and to earn one's own bread by personal exertion are the four excellent things to be learned from a cock.

Who is there who has not been overcome by the ravages of time? What beggar has attained glory? Who has become happy by contracting the vices of the wicked?

Save your wealth against future calamity.

That man who is without religion and mercy should be rejected. A guru without spiritual knowledge should be rejected. The wife with an offensive face should be given up and so should relatives who are without affection.

The poor wish for wealth, animals for the faculty of speech, men wish for heaven, and godly persons for liberation.

Those men who are happy in this world who are generous towards their relatives kind to strangers indifferent to the wicked loving to the good shrewd in their dealings with the base frank with the learned courageous with enemies humble with elders and stern with the wife.

Wealth a friend a wife and a kingdom may be regained, but this body when lost may never be acquired again.

How can people be made happy in a petty kingdom? What peace can we expect from a rascal friend? What happiness can we have at home in the company of a bad wife? How can renown be gained by instructing an unworthy disciple?

Among men the barber is cunning, among birds the crow, among beasts the jackal, and among women the malin (flower girl).

Although an ass is tired he continues to carry his burden, he is unmindful of cold and heat, and he is always contented, these three things should be learned from the ass.

He should be considered to be living who is virtuous and pious but the life of a man who is destitute of religion and virtues is void of any blessing.

No messenger can travel about in the sky and no tidings come from there. The voice of its inhabitants as never heard nor can any contact be established with them.

Therefore kings gather round themselves men of good families for they never forsake them either at the beginning the middle or the end.

It is ruinous to be familiar with the king fire the religious preceptor and a woman. To be altogether indifferent of them is to be deprived of the opportunity to benefit ourselves hence our association with them must be from a safe distance.

One whose knowledge is confined to books, and whose wealth is in the possession of others, can use neither his knowledge, nor wealth, when the need for them arises.

Residing in a small village devoid of proper living facilities serving a person born of a low family unwholesome food a frowning wife a foolish son and a widowed daughter burn the body without fire.

By going to the den of a lion pearls from the head of an elephant may be obtained, but by visiting the hole of a jackal nothing but the tail of a calf or a bit of the hide of an ass may found.

There is no disease (so destructive) as lust, no enemy like infatuation, no fire like wrath, and no happiness like spiritual knowledge.

As soon as the fear approaches near attack and destroy it.